Role and Responsibilities
Four hundred years ago, Samuel de Champlain—a governor in all but name— fulfilled several duties and responsibilities that would later be carried out by the governors of New France and, after Confederation, by the governors general of Canada.
Canada became a country at Confederation in 1867. Our system of government is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II is Queen of Canada and Head of State. The Governor General is the representative of the Queen in Canada.
The responsibilities of the governor general have evolved over time, along with the evolution of Canada as a sovereign and independent nation. In 1947, letters patent signed by King George VI redefine the powers of the governor general. These letters patent “authorize and empower Our Governor General, with the advice of Our Privy Council for Canada or any members thereof or individually, as the case requires, to exercise all powers and authorities lawfully belonging to Us in respect of Canada”. Since then, the governor general has daily and fully exercised the duties of the Head of State, not only in Canada, but also abroad. As per the letters patent, the governor general is also the commander-in-chief of Canada.
The governor general represents Canada during State visits abroad and receives Royal visitors, heads of State and foreign ambassadors at Rideau Hall and at the Citadelle of Québec.
The governor general presents honours and awards to recognize excellence, valour, bravery and exceptional achievements. The governor general is also the head of the Canadian Heraldic Authority.